Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

PLoS ONE 11(7): e0158124. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158124

Abstract

Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people’s views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos’ mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant’s zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks to optimize care of zoo elephants.

Link zum Volltext: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158124

25.07.2016

Freigegeben in M
Freitag, 04 September 2015 13:53

POLLACK, U. (2008)

Tiere in der Stadt: Die städtische Mensch-Tier-Beziehung, Ambivalenzen, Chancen und Risiken

Animals in the town: The urban human-animal relationship, ambivalences, chances and risks

Dissertation

183 Seite

Politik- und Sozialwisenschaften der Freien Universität Berlin
Gutachter: Dr. Hartmut Salzwedel, Prof. Dr. Johannes Gordesch

Ganzer Text

Zusammenfassung:

In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die städtische Mensch-Tierbeziehung unter soziologischen, sozialpsychologischen und kulturwissenschaftlichen Aspekten betrachtet. Tiere sind ein wichtiger Bestandteil unseres Lebens. Sie begegnen uns in unserer Freizeit als Gefährten und Spielkameraden, in Zoos als exotische Wesen, auf dem Speiseplan als Nahrung, im Arbeitsleben als nützliche Helfer, in der Wirtschaft als Rohstofflieferanten, in der Umwelt als bedrohte Kreaturen, in Märchen und auf Wappen als symbolische Wesen. Tiere wurden und werden vielfältig genutzt und sind immer auch Gegenstand ethischer und moralischer Überlegungen, gerade in der heutigen Zeit. Ob Tierversuche, Jagd, Massentierhaltung, Fleischkonsum, Hochleistungszucht und Tierquälerei: Wenn wir über den Umgang mit Tieren debattieren, sprechen wir auch über unser Selbstverständnis als Menschen.
In den verschiedenen Kulturen und Gesellschaften existieren differente Wertzuweisungen, Einstellungsmuster und Begegnungsformen im Umgang mit Tieren. Das Verhältnis des Menschen zum Tier ist sehr vielgestaltig sowie wandlungsfähig und gilt als Beleg für eine prinzipiell variable, oft auch ambivalente Haltung des Menschen gegenüber Tieren. Die gegenwärtige städtische Mensch-Tier-Beziehung charakterisiert sich in den westlich-industrialisierten Ländern wie Deutschland durch ein breites Spektrum von Verhaltensweisen und Wertvorstellungen zwischen Nähe und Distanz, Verhätschelung und Ausbeutung bzw. Quälerei, Bewunderung und Ablehnung; ja sogar Ekel, je nachdem, um welche Tierart es sich handelt. Es gibt einen fundamentalen Widerspruch zwischen der Wahrnehmung des Tieres als Subjekt, also einem quasi-anthropomorphen Interaktionspartner und dem Einsatz von Tieren als entindividualisierte Objekte, z. B. von Nutztieren, die Ernährungszwecken dienen.
Die zentrale Aufgabe der Arbeit ist, einen Überblick über die (ambivalenten) Formen der Mensch-Tier-Beziehung darzustellen, die in einer Stadt zu finden sind. Vor diesem Hintergrund müssen auch Kriterien genannt und entwickelt werden, die es ermöglichen, von einer sozialen Beziehung zwischen Mensch und Tier zu sprechen.
Untrennbar damit verbunden ist auch die Frage, welche Chancen und Probleme bzw. Risiken und welche Folgen sich bei den unterschiedlichen Formen der städtischen Mensch-Tier-Beziehung einerseits für die Tiere, andererseits für die Menschen ergeben.
Die Situation in der Großstadt Berlin wird dabei beispielhaft an einigen Stellen der Arbeit (insbesondere im empirischen Teil) als Illustration herangezogen. Berlin kann stellvertretend für andere europäische Großstädte gesehen werden, wobei die Verallgemeinerbarkeit der Ergebnisse nur vermutet werden kann.
Diese Arbeit soll dazu dienen, einen ersten theoretischen Rahmen für die städtische Mensch-Tier-Beziehung zu setzen. Um einen Überblick zu schaffen und um der Vielschichtigkeit der städtischen Mensch-Tier-Beziehung gerecht zu werden, wurde das Thema anhand des wissenschaftlichen Schriftentums untersucht. Da die Komplexität der Mensch-Tier-Beziehung nicht auf ein einfaches Schema reduzierbar ist, kann es nicht Ziel dieser Arbeit sein, diese Beziehung in all ihren Facetten erschöpfend zu behandeln.

Abstract:

In the present work the urban human-animal relationship is looked under sociological, social-psychological and cultural-scientific aspects. Animals are an important component of our life. They meet us in our spare time as companions and playfellows, in zoos as exotic beings, on the menu as food, in the working life as useful assistants, in the economy as raw material suppliers, in the environment as threatened creatures, in fairy tale and on coat of arms as symbolic beings. Animals became and are used variously and are always also an object of ethical and moral considerations, just in the today's time. Whether bioassays, hunt, mass keeping of pets, meat consumption, high-capacity breeding and animal cruelty: If we debate the contact with animals, we also speak of our self-image as people. In the different cultures and societies differente value allocations, setting patterns and meeting forms exist in dealing with animals. The relation of the person to the animal is very variform as well as versatile and is valid as a document for an in principle variable often also ambivalent position of the person towards animals. The present urban human-animal relationship characterises itself in the western-industrialized countries like Germany by a wide spectrum of behaviour patterns and values between nearness and distance, spoiling and exploitation or cruelty, admiration and refusal; even disgust, depending on which animal species it concerns. There is a basic contradiction between the perception of the animal as a subject, so to a quasi anthropomorphize interaction partner and the application of animals as no individual objects, for example from benefit animals who serve food purposes. The central job of the work is to show an overview about the (ambivalent) forms of the human-animal relationship which are to be found in a town. Before this background criteria must be also called and be developed which enable to speak of a social respect between person and animal. Inseparably so that is also connected the question which chances and problems or risks and which results arise with the different forms of the urban human-animal relationship on the one hand for the animals, on the other hand, for the people. Besides, the situation in the city of Berlin is pulled up exemplarily at some places of the work (in particular in the empiric part) as an illustration. Berlin can be seen on behalf for other European cities and the generalizability of the results can be only supposed.
This work should serve to put the first theoretical frame for the urban human-animal relationship. To create an overview and to do justice to the complexity of the urban human- animal relationship, the subject was examined with the help of the scientific literature. Because the complexity of the human-animal relationship is not reduceable on an easy pattern, it cannot be an aim of this work to treat this respect in all her facets fatiguingly.

04.09.2015

Freigegeben in P
Freitag, 29 Mai 2015 09:53

STAUFFACHER, M. (1993)

Angst bei Tieren - ein zoologisches und ein forensisches Problem.

Dtsch. tierärztl. Wschr. 100: 322-327.

Freigegeben in S

Preliminary findings of behavioral patterns in captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) and prospects for future conservation

Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 2010; 34(2): 111-117 © TÜBİTAK, doi:10.3906/vet-0707-2

Abstract:

Captive farming of alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) in China has been used for conservation and harvesting of musk since the mid 1950s. Despite this long history, management practices and captive breeding have been primarily based on trial and error due to lack of behavioral and ecological information about this vulnerable species. Understanding behavioral patterns plays a vital part in determining appropriate management systems; hence the aim of this study was to determine the effect of captivity on behavioral patterns of alpine musk deer by comparing wild-caught and the captive-born alpine musk deer. From August 2002 to January 2003, the behavioral patterns of 30 wild-caught (WC) and 15 captive-bred (CB) adult alpine musk deer were recorded at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), located in Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province, China. Focal sampling was used to observe the frequencies of 12 behavior categories. The behavioral patterns of WC and CB musk deer were found to be similar; however, when gender was considered, male WC deer showed a significantly high er frequency of agonistic nteraction. These preliminary results suggest that captivity has had no immediate impact on the behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer despite 10 generations of captivity. Therefore, the alpine musk deer is not suited for domestication and further investigation into the effectiveness of musk deer farming for the purpose of harvesting musk should be undertaken.

Auszug:

Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures (10 m × 10 m), in groups ranging from 5 to 7 individuals. Each enclosure contained a central yard with 7 adjoining indoor cells (4 m²). Wire mesh separated enclosures enabled animals to see, hear, and smell each other. Human interaction was limited to 5 min at dawn and dusk during which animals were fed and husbandry duties were conducted.

During the study, males and females were housed separately from March to October; both CB and WB individuals, however, were housed in the same enclosures. From November to February, one male was introduced into each of the female enclosures and the males introduced into the female enclosure were both CB and WB, as with commercial breeding practices.

05.03.2015

Freigegeben in M

Enclosure Designe for Captive Slow and Pygmy Lorises

In: Primates of the Oriental Night - proceedings of the Indonesian Workshop: Taxonomy, husbandry, and conservation of tarsiers and lorises. Jakarta, Indonesia, 15-25 February 2003, at the Pusat Primata Schmutzer / Schmutzer Primate Center, Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta. Special edition of Treubia, Bogor: 123-135

Abstract:

While large numbers of slow and pygmy lorises are commonly kept in local zoos and rescue centers, information about
enclosure design and minimal housing requirements is often lacking. We present recommendations for designing indoor and
outdoor loris enclosures for exhibits, rescue centers, and sanctuaries. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each
enclosure type and address construction specifications, furnishings, environmental requirements, social considerations, and
keeper monitoring. Essential requirements for loris release into naturalistic outdoor enclosures are presented along with
questions for future studies.

Auszug:

In some facilities such as primate rescue centers, wire cages may be the best option available. An outdoor cage measuring 2.00 m x 2.50 m x 1.80 m can successfully house 1-3 slow lorises if the furnishings are sufficient. (See climbing structures and nest box sections.) Wire should always be free of rust or sharp edges. Poly vinyl coated wire is ideal because it resists corrosion from moisture and loris urine marking. Wire gage of 2 cm x 2 cm is comfortable for lorises to grasp, and it will keep rodents and potential predators outside. Outdoor enclosures must also have a solid roof to protect lorises from sun and rain.

Maximum flexibility can be achieved by building several smaller cages (minimum size of 1.70 m x 1.00 m x .70 m per slow loris), which are connected with removable wire tunnels. Depending on whether the tunnel gates are open or closed, lorises can be kept alone or given access to other enclosures. If cages share common walls, double wire mesh or solid walls must be used to prevent lorises from biting their neighbor ’s fingers. Keeper doors should be large enough for a person to walk inside the enclosure or easily reach any area inside the cage. Doorframes must be made of a solid material that will not bend. Otherwise, lorises may be able to escape by squeezing their bodies through the small gaps between door openings. Cages should be elevated at least 15 cm above the ground to so that excreta and other waste will fall below. Indoor cages can easily be moved for cleaning if wheels are attached to the bottoms. Food dishes and nest boxes can be placed on wire shelves, which are also useful for loris resting places.

05.03.2015

Freigegeben in F
Montag, 09 Februar 2015 12:42

SAMBRAUS, H. H. & SPANNL-FLOR, M.(2004)

Artgemäße Bisonhaltung

TVT-Merkblatt Nr. 97.
23 Seiten, 8 Abbildungen
Tierärztliche Vereinigung für Tierschutz e.V., Geschäftsstelle D-49565 Bramsche

Inhalt:

1. Einleitung
2. Zoologische Systematik
3. Verbreitung und Lebensweise
4. Verhalten
4.1 Sozialverhalten
4.2 Fortpflanzung
4.3 Geburt
4.4 Kuh-Kalb-Verhalten
4.5 Komfortverhalten
4.6 Fress-/Trinkverhalten
4.7 Lokomotion
5. Klimaansprüche
6. Haltung
6.1 Einzäunung
6.2 Fütterung
6.3 Tränke
6.4 Witterungsschutz
6.5 Haltung im Winter
7. Umgang (Handling)
8. Pflege und Eingriffe
9. Krankheiten
10. Schlachtung
11. Rechtliche Grundlagen
12. Besonders zu beachten
13. Literatur

Volltext herunterzuladen von: http://www.tierschutz-tvt.de/merkblaetter.html#c5

09.02.2015

Freigegeben in S
Donnerstag, 05 Februar 2015 06:30

CYPZIRSCH, K. & SCHNEIDER, C, (2010)

Leitfade zur Bisonhaltung in Deutschland - Geschichte, Haltung, Zucht, Tiergesundheit, Nutzung und Versicherung, 148 Seiten, 36 Abbildungen, 32 Tabellen. Schüling Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-86523-203-8.

Freigegeben in C
Donnerstag, 05 Februar 2015 06:25

CARROLL, B. (ed., 2002)

EAZA.Haltungsrichtlinien für Krallenaffen. Deutscher Übersetzung von Eva Zimmermann et al. EAZA Amsterdam. Deutsche Fassung produziert von Berufsverband der Zootierpfleger, Redaktion "Arbeitsplatz Zoo", Dresden. 103 Seiten.

Freigegeben in C
Dienstag, 13 Januar 2015 09:43

EAAM (2009)

The European Association of Aquatic Mammals Standards and Guidelines for the management of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp) under human care (version Sept 2009)

27 Seiten

EAAM, Brüssel.

Vorwort:

Public display facilities are resource centres that help people to expand their knowledge about the importance of marine conservation, responsible human behaviour, and the principles of ecology. A contribution to the conservation of marine mammals and their environment is made by increasing public awareness of marine mammals and the marine ecosystem trough lectures, exhibits, courses and conservation programs for adults and children. Providing the opportunity for 20 million people to view marine mammals at public display facilities arguably prevents much harassment of marine mammals in the wild. Many facilities have programs to assist stranded or sick marine mammals, which communicate the importance of conservation.

Much of what has been learned about marine mammal behaviour, biology, and physiology has been derived from scientific research on captive marine mammals, and is important in better understanding how to sustain marine mammal populations in the wild. Greater knowledge about marine mammals improves efforts to help the animals cope with natural and anthropogenic risks and threats. Marine mammals are difficult to observe in the wild, and captive settings offer opportunities to develop field research techniques.

Education of the public about marine mammals has made people feel strongly about protecting the animals and their environment. The various shows, lectures, exhibits, and courses at public display facilities are all part of their education programs. Public display elevates peoples understanding of marine mammals and the marine ecosystem. Many people who live away from the coasts might never be exposed to these animals if they did not have the opportunity to visit a public display facility.

These Standards and Guidelines reflect present-day practices, which are based on current scientific data and the cumulative experience of the membership. They will be updated and improved as the knowledge base expands. These Standards and Guidelines will be reviewed annually under the direction of the Board of the EAAM, thereby assuring the goal of the EAAM institutional members to lead the marine mammal display community in the integration of advancing science and technologies.

The Standards and Guidelines reflect the commitment of the EAAM members to hold and display our marine mammal collection under state of the art conditions. They are available on demand in order that our commitment is transparent and controllable.

13.01.2015

Freigegeben in E
Freitag, 09 Januar 2015 16:58

EAZA Elephant TAG (2005)

Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals - Elephant

36 Seiten. EAZA, Amsterdam.

Einleitung:

Elephants are kept in zoos as part of an overriding conservation mission so that they are in actively managed breeding programmes. This may mean that non-breeding elephants are kept at some zoos to ensure maximization of the capacity for elephant breeding zoos. Their presence enables progressive educational activities and demonstrates links with field conservation projects and benign scientific research, leading to continuous improvements in breeding and welfare standards.

Zoos have a duty of care: that standards of husbandry practices, housing, health and welfare management are humane and appropriate to the intelligence, social behaviour, longevity and size of elephants. All zoos should aim to continuously improve welfare standards.
Zoos have a moral and legal responsibility to ensure the safety of visitors and staff.

Zoos must continually assess their performance against the EAZA Elephant Management Policy with its defined standards and procedures, in order to demonstrate legal compliance and address legitimate public concerns. The policy documents will be reviewed annually and comments can be submitted at any time by members to one of the EEP Coordinators for consideration.

The goal of this policy statement is the ongoing well-being of elephants in controlled environments in European collections. Furthermore these recommendations offer a tool to all elephant keeping institutions for improving their standards as old keeping regimes are phased out over the years and with the aging of individual elephants.

All sections of this document are intended as exemplary and make no claim to be comprehensive.

09.01.2015

Freigegeben in E
Seite 1 von 6
© Verband der Zoologischen Gärten (VdZ) e.V. hyperworx